Made from European Hardwood

100% natural xylitol
sugar alternative

Xylitol - Full Study List

Xylitol Research Studies:

Below are a selection of the most respectable articles written on xylitol.

2006

Tolerability of oral xylitol solution in young children: Implications for otitis media prophylaxis. Vernacchio L, Vezina RM, Mitchell AA. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Jan;71(1):89-94. Epub 2006 Nov 9.

Caries in 4-year-old children after maternal chewing of gums containing combinations of xylitol, sorbitol, chlorhexidine and fluoride. Thorild I, Lindau B, Twetman S. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2006 Dec;7(4):241-5.

Parental influence on children’s oral health-related behaviour. Poutanen R, Lahti S, Tolvanen M, Hausen H. Acta Odontol Scand. 2006 Oct;64(5):286-92.

Preventing dental disease. Huston JP. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2006 Jul;34(7):491-2. No abstract available.

Multiple exposures to chlorhexidine and xylitol: adhesion and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Modesto A, Drake DR. Curr Microbiol. 2006 Jun;52(6):418-23. Epub 2006 Apr 25.

The effect of xylitol on Streptococcus mutans in children. Massoth D, Massoth G, Massoth IR, Laflamme L, Shi W, Hu C, Gu F. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2006 Mar;34(3):231-4.

Xylitol, sweeteners, and dental caries. Ly KA, Milgrom P, Rothen M. Pediatr Dent. 2006 Mar-Apr;28(2):154-63; discussion 192-8. Review.

The use of sorbitol- and xylitol-sweetened chewing gum in caries control. Burt BA. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006 Feb;137(2):190-6. Review. Erratum in: J Am Dent Assoc. 2006 Apr;137(4):447.

Mutans streptococci dose response to xylitol chewing gum. Milgrom P, Ly KA, Roberts MC, Rothen M, Mueller G, Yamaguchi DK. J Dent Res. 2006 Feb;85(2):177-81.

Field trial on caries prevention with xylitol candies among disabled school students. Honkala E, Honkala S, Shyama M, Al-Mutawa SA. Caries Res. 2006;40(6):508-13.

Xylitol concentration in saliva and dental plaque after use of various xylitol-containing products. Lif Holgerson P, Stecksen-Blicks C, Sjostrom I, Oberg M, Twetman S. Caries Res. 2006;40(5):393-7.

2005

The effect of adding calcium lactate to xylitol chewing gum on remineralization of enamel lesions. Suda R, Suzuki T, Takiguchi R, Egawa K, Sano T, Hasegawa K. Caries Res. 2006;40(1):43-6.

Synergistic inhibition by combination of fluoride and xylitol on glycolysis by mutans streptococci and its biochemical mechanism. Maehara H, Iwami Y, Mayanagi H, Takahashi N. Caries Res. 2005 Nov-Dec;39(6):521-8.

Effect of xylitol-containing chewing gums on interdental plaque-pH in habitual xylitol consumers. Lif Holgerson P, Stecksen-Blicks C, Sjostrom I, Twetman S. Acta Odontol Scand. 2005 Aug;63(4):233-8.

Children’s acceptance of milk with xylitol or sorbitol for dental caries prevention. Castillo JL, Milgrom P, Coldwell SE, Castillo R, Lazo R. BMC Oral Health. 2005 Jul 22;5(1):6.

The polyols in pediatric dentistry: advantages of xylitol. Grillaud M, Bandon D, Nancy J, Delbos Y, Vaysse F. Arch Pediatr. 2005 Jul;12(7):1180-6. Review. French.

Complementary and alternative medicine in allergy, otitis media, and asthma. Blazek-O’Neill B. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2005 Jul;5(4):313-8. Review.

Evaluation of the independent and combined effects of xylitol and polydextrose consumed as a snack on hunger and energy intake over 10 d. King NA, Craig SA, Pepper T, Blundell JE. Br J Nutr. 2005 Jun;93(6):911-5.

Xylitol in the prevention of oral diseases. Kitchens DH. Spec Care Dentist. 2005 May-Jun;25(3):140-4. Review.

The effect of a simultaneous dietary administration of xylitol and ethanol on bone resorption. Mattila PT, Kangasmaa H, Knuuttila ML. Metabolism. 2005 Apr;54(4):548-51.

Effects of long-term dietary xylitol supplementation on collagen content and fluorescence of the skin in aged rats. Mattila PT, Pelkonen P, Knuuttila ML. Gerontology. 2005 May-Jun; 51(3): 166-9

Dietary factors and dental caries. Stillman-Lowe C. Evid-Based-Dent. 2005; 6(1): 7-8

2004

Functional Foods. Multifunctional sugar alternatives for improved health. Mitchell H. NutraCos. 2004; 3(1):22-26

Review of dietary recommendations for diabetes mellitus. Choudhary P. Diabetes research and clinical practise. 2004; 65(Suppl.): s9-s15

Ultrastructure of Streptococcus pneumoniae after exposure to xylitol. Tapiainen T, Sormunen R, Kaijalainen T, Kontiokari T, Ikaheimo I, Uhari M. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2004; 54(1): 225-228

Xylitol concentrations in the saliva of children after chewing xylitol gum or consuming a xylitol mixture. Norkus E, Vaiciuniene J, Vuorinen T, Gaidamauskas E, Reklaitis J, Jaaskelainen AS, Crans DC. Carbohydrate Research. 2004 Feb 25; 339(3): 599-605

Army revamps soldiers rations in effort to promote oral health. Dent Today. 2004 Apr; 23(4): 40, 42

Army’s “look for xylitol first” program. Richter P, Chaffin J. Dent Assist. 2004 Mar-Apr; 73(2): 38-40

Caries risk and nutrition in adolescents. Kandray DP. Journal of Practical Hygiene. 2004 Sep-Oct; 13(5): 19-22 (11 ref)

Professional development. Good oral health contributes to good total health: the role of the diabetes educator. Jahn CA. Diabetes Educator. 2004 Sep-Oct; 30(5): 754, 757-60 (24 ref)

A novel model to study bacterial adherence to the transplanted airway: inhibition of Burkholderia cepacia adherence to human airway by dextran and xylitol. Sajjan U, Moreira J, Liu M, Humar A, Chaparro C, Forstner J, Keshavjee S. J-Heart-Lung –Transplant. 2004 Dec; 23(12): 1382-91

Xylitol. Kizaki Z, Sawada T. Nippon-Rinsho. 2004 Nov; 62 Suppl 11: 640-3

Xylitol enhances bacterial killing in the rabbit maxillary sinus. Brown CL, Graham SM, Cable BB, Ozer EA, Taft PJ, Zabner J. Laryngoscope. 2004 Nov; 114(11): 2021-4

Sweeteners and dental health. Makinen KK. Functional Foods, Ageing and degenerative disease. 2004; 200-219

Sugar alcohols: what is the evidence for caries-preventative and caries therapeutic effects? Loveren C-van. Caries Research. 2004; 38(3): 286-293

Functional foods. Multifunctional sugar alternatives for improved health. Mitchell H. NutraCos. 2004; 3(1): 22-26

A novel model to study bacterial adherence to the transplanted airway: Inhibition of Burkholderia cepacia adherence to human airway by dextran and xylitol. Saijjan U, Moreira J, Liu M, Humar A, Chaparro C, Forstner J, Keshavjee S. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 2004; 23(12): 1382-1391

Salivary mutans streptococci and dental caries in three-year-old children after maternal exposure to chewing gums containing combinations of xylitol, sorbitol, chlorhexidine, and fluoride. Thorild I, Lindau B, Twetman S. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 2004; 62(5): 245-50

Xylitol enhances bacterial killing in the rabbit maxillary sinus. Brown CL, Graham SM, Cable BB, Ozer EA, Taft PJ, Zabner J. Laryngoscope. 2004; 114(11 I): 2021-2024

What can oral public health learn from Finland? Widome R, Formicola AJ. American Journal of Public Health. 2004; 94(11): 1842-1843

Dental prevention in pregnant women. Sotwinska SM, Dubielecka-Kittel M. Nowa Stomatologia. 2004; 9(29): 125-127

Evaluation of the dental plaque pH recovery effect of a xylitol lozenge on patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Sengun A, Sari Z, Ramoglu SI, Malkoc S, Duran I. Angle Orthod. 2004 Apr; 74(2): 240-4

Effect of xylitol on mutans streptococci and lactic acid formation in saliva and plaque from adolescents and young adults with fixed orthodontic appliances. Stecksen-Blicks C, Holgerson PL, Olsson M, Bylund B, Sjostrom I, Skold-Larsson K, Kalfas S, Twetman S. Eur. J. Oral. Sci. 2004 Jun; 112(3): 244-8

Home study course: xylitol: magic in the making. Huber J. Journal of the California Dental Hygienists Association. 2004 Fall; 20(1): 29-34 (30 ref)

Recommendations for evidence based oral hygiene of clients in health and care institutions. Gottschalck T, Dassen T, Zimmer S. Pflege. 2004 Apr; 17(2): 78-91 (121 ref)

A paradigm shift for caries diagnosis and treatment – part II: treatment. Steinberg S. RDH 2004 Mar; 24(3): 72, 74 (10 ref)

The Army goes rolling along…Army’s “Look fro Xylitol First” program. Richter P, Chaffin J. Dental Assistant. 2004 Mar-Apr; 73(2): 38-40 (4 ref)

A hygienist’s holistic approach to nutrition and dental health. LaMantia J. Probe 2004 Jan-Feb; 38(1): 41-2 (3 ref)

Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners. Journal of the American Dietetic ASSOCIATION. 2004 Feb; 104(2): 255-75 (177 ref)

The role of sugar-free products in oral health. Spector RW, Nabors LO. Access 2004 Jan; 18(1): 10, 12-4 (25 ref)

Novel perfluoroalkylated derivatives of D-galactopyranose and xylitol for biomedical uses. Hemocompatibility and effect on perfluorocarbon emulsions. Cirkva V, Polak R, Paleta O, Kefurt K, Moravcova J, Kodicek M, Forman S. Carbohydr Res. 2004 Sep 13; 399(13): 2177-85

Antagonistic activity of lactic acid bacteria as probiotics against selected bacteria of the Enterobaceriacae family in the presence of polyols and their galactosyl derivatives. Klewicki R, Klewicka E. Biotechnol Lett. 2004 Feb; 26(4): 317-20

Thumbs up for sugarless chewing gum. Dent. Today. 2004 Jan; 23(1): 46

2003

Beneficial effects of dietary xylitol on mineralised and collagenous tissues. Mattila PT, Knuuttila MLE, Svanberg MJ. Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research. 2003; 1(4): 225-234

Synergisitc inhibitory effect of cationic peptides and antimicrobial agents on the growth of oral streptococci. Kim SS, Kim Sunkyu, Kim-Eunshin, Hyub-Byungkuk, Kim kackKyun, Lee-ByeongJae. Caries-Research. 2003; 37(6): 425-430

Xylitol inhibition of acid production and growth of mutans streptococci in the presence of various dietary sugars under strictly anaerobic conditions. Kakuta H, Iwami Y, Mayanagi H, Takahashi N. Caries Research. 2003; 37(6): 404-409

Health potential of polyols as sugar replacers, with emphasis on low glycaemic properties. Livesey G. Nutrition Research Reviews. 2003; 16(2): 163-191

The next step in infectious disease: taming bacteria. Jones AH. Medical Hypotheses. 2003; 60(2): 171-174

Dental population health measures: Supporting army transformation. Chaffin J. Military Medicine. 2003; 168(3): 223-226

Prevention of otitis media caused by viral upper respiratory tract infection: Vaccines, antivirals, and other approaches. Doyle WJ, Alper CM. Archives of Oral Biology. 2003; 48(5): 389-395

Development of dietary supplement for the growth and exercise performance improvement. Yoo-SeungWon, Jung-EunHee, Yang-DongSik, Lee-HongSeok, Yoon-Yoosik. Korean Journal of Community Nutrition. 2003; 8(3): 349-355

Xylitol and caries prevention – is it a magic bullet? Maguire A, Rugg-Gunn AJ, British Dental Journal. 2003; 194(8): 429-436

Effect of xylitol-containing chewing gums on lactic acid production in dental plaque from caries active pre-school children. Twetman S, Stecksen-Blicks C. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2003; 1(3): 195-9

The biochemistry of alternative medicine. Xylitol: a sweet for healthier teeth and more. Cronin JR. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 2003 Jun; 9(3): 139-41 (28 ref)

Nutrition and oral health. Dental Clinics of North America. 2003 Apr; 47(2): xi-xii, 187-423

Chew on this for strong bones. Williams DG. Alternatives 2003 Sep; 10(3): 17-22

Oral health care for pregnant and postpartum women. Goldie MP. International Journal of Dental Hygiene. 2003 Aug; 1(3): 174-6 (11 ref)

Dental properties of xylitol prove superior to those of other polyols. Dental Abstracts. 2003 Nov-Dec; 48(6): 281

Thinking sharply. Chew on this. Gutkowski S. RDH. 2003 Mar; 23(3): 72-3, 89 (3 ref)

Healthy bright smiles during ortho. RDH. 2003 Apr; 23(4): 54, 56, 58 passim (6 bib)

Sugars and dental caries. Touger-Decker R, van-Loveren C. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003 Oct; 78(4): 881S-92S (101 ref) (Suppl)

Effect of maternal use of chewing gums containing xylitol, chlorhexidine or fluoride on mutans streptococci colonization in the mothers’ infant children. Throrild I, Lindau B, Twetman S. Oral-Health-Prev-Dent. 2003; 1(1): 53-7

Beneficial effects of dietary xylitol on mineralized and collagenous tissues. Mattila PT, Knuuttila MLE, Svanberg MJ. Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research. 2003; 1(4): 225-234

Development of dietary supplement for the growth and exercise performance improvement. Yoon-SeungWon, Jung-EunHee, Yang-DongSik, Lee-HongSeok, Yoon-YooSik. Korean Journal of Community Nutrition. 2003; 8(3): 349-355

Suppression of salivary streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli by topical caries preventative agents. Juric H, Dukic W, Jankovic B, Karlovic Z, Pavelic B. Central European Journal of Public Health. 2003; 11(4): 219-222

Use of xylitol chewing gum in daycare centers: A follow-up study in Savonlinna, Finland. Kovari H, Pienihakkinen K, Alanen P. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 2003; 61(6): 367-370

Dietary factors in the prevention of dental caries: A systematic review. Lingstrom P, Holm AK, Mejare I, Twetman S, Soder B, Norlund A, Axelsson S, Lagerlof F, Nordenram G, Petersson LG, Dahlgren H, Kallestal C. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 2003; 61(6): 331-340

Health potential of polyols as sugar replacers, with emphasis on low glycaemic properties. Livesey G. Nutrition Research Reviews. 2003; 16(2): 163-191

Preventative dentistry: current concepts in women’s oral health. Burakoff RP. Primary Care Update for Ob/Gyns. 2003; 10(3): 141-146

A pilot study on antiplaque effects of mastic chewing gum in the oral cavity. Takahashi K, Fukeazawa M, Motohira H, Ochiai K, Nishikawa H, Miyata T. Journal of Periodontology. 2003; 74(4): 501-505

Xylitol inhibition of anaerobic aicd production by Streptococcus mutans at various pH levels. Miyasawa H, Iwami Y, Mayanagi H, Takahashi N. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2003 Aug; 18(4): 215-9

Xylitol and dental caries: an overview for clinicians. Lynch H, Milogram P. J. Calif. Dent. Assoc. 2003 Mar; 31(3): 205-9

Nutrition and dental caries. Mobley CC. Dent Clin North Am. 2003 Apr; 47(2): 319-36

Daily use of dentifrice with and without xylitol and fluoride: effect on glucose retention in humans in vivo. Iwata C, Nakagaki H, Morita I, Sekiya T, Goshima M, Abe T, Isogai A, Hanaki M, Kuwahara M, Tatematsu M, Robinson C. Arch. Oral. Biol. 2003 May; 48(5): 389-95

Remineralization effects of xylitol on demineralised enamel. Miake Y, Saeki Y, Takahashi M, Yanagisawa T. J. Electron. Microsc. (Tokyo). 2003; 52(5): 471-6

Practical protocols for the prevention of dental disease in community settings for people with special needs: the protocols. Glassman P, Anderson M, Jacobsen P, Schonfeld S, Weintraub J, White A, Gall T, Hammersmark S, Isman R, Miller CE, Noel D, Silverstein S, Young D. Spec Care Dentist. 2003 Sep-Oct; 23(5): 160-4

Chlorhexidine and xylitol gum in caries prevention. Anderson M. Spec. Care. Dentist. 2003 Sep-Oct; 23(5): 173-6

2002

Improved bone biomechanical properties in xylitol-fed aged rats. Mattile PT, Svanberg MJ, Jamsa T, Knuuttila MLE. Metabolism, Clinical and Experimental. 2002; 51 (1): 92-96

Xylitol administered only during respiratory infections failed to prevent acute otitis media. Tapiainen T, Luotonen L, Kontiokari T, Renko M, Uhari M. Pediatrics 2002; 109 (2(1)):302

Xylitol: A sweetener with benefits for human health. Ines-Mussatto S, Roberto-Conceeicao I. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2002; 38(4): 401-413

The effect of medicated chewing gums on oral health in frail older people: a 1-year clinical trial. Simons D, Brailsford SR, Kidd EAM, Beighton D. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2002; 50(8): 1348-1353

Sugar alcohols enhance calcium transport from rat small and large intestine epithelium in vitro. Mineo H, Hara H, Tomita F. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2002; 47(6): 1326-1333

Xylitol for caries prevention. Peldyak J, Makinen KK. Journal of Dental Hygiene. 2002 Fall; 76(4): 276-85 (76 ref)

In vitro testing of xylitol as an anticariogenic agent. Sahni PS, Gillespie MJ, Botto RW, Otsuka AS. General Dentistry. 2002 Jul-Aug; 50(4): 340-3 (20 ref)

How does xylitol prevent caries? Studies in children and adults. Dental Abstracts. 2002 Nov-Dec; 47(6): 251

Carbohydrate and satiety. Feinle C, O’Donovan D, Horowitz M. Nutrition Reviews. 2002 Jun; 60(6): 155-69 (134 ref)

Sugar alcohols and diabetes: a review. Wolver TMS, Piekarz A, Hollands M, Younker K. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 2002 Dec; 26(4): 356-62 (46 ref)

Acute otitis media. O’Neill P. Clin-Evid. 2002 Dec; (8): 251-61

The global market for polyols. International Sugar Journal. 2002; 104(1244): 352-354

Changes in management of otitis media: 2003 and beyond. Klein JO. Pediatric Annals. 2002; 31(12)

What’s new in the diagnosis and management of otitis media? Klein JO. Pediatric Annals. 2002; 31(12): 777-778

Global view on functional foods: Asian perspectives. Arai S. British Journal of Nutrition. 2002; 88(SUPPL. 2): S139-S143

Actions of farnesol and xylitol against Staphylococcus aureus. Akiyama H, Oono T, Huh WK, Yamasaki O, Ogawa S, Katsuyama M, Ichikawa H, Iwatsuki K. Chemotherapy 2002; 48(3): 122-128

Improving oral health in older people. Ship JA. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2002; 50(8): 1454-1455

Bacteriological effects of xylitol and different carbohydrate containing diets in Swiss albino rats inoculated with Streptococcus mutans CCUG 6519. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences. 2002; 32(1): 13-19

Cariogenic traits in xylitol-resistant and xylitol-sensitive mutans streptococci. Assev S, Stig S, Scheie A Aa. Oral Microbiology and Immunology. April, 2002; 17(2): 95-99

Efffect of trilosan-containing toothpaste supplemented with 10% xylitol on mutans streptococci in saliva and dental plaque: a 6-month clinical study. Jannesson L, Renvert S, Kjellsdotter P, Gaffar A, Nabi N, Birkhed D. Caries Research. 2002 Jan-Feb; 36(1): 36-9 (29 ref)

What means of treating mouth problems are described? An analysis of German and English publications between 1990 and 2001. Gottschalck T, Dassen T. Pflege. 2002 Jun; 15(3): 137-45 (138 ref)

Antimicrobial chewing gum improves oral health in nursing home residents. Dental Abstracts. 2002 May-Jun; 47(3): 129

Diet and nutrition implications for oral health. Hornick B. Journal of Dental Hygiene.. 2002 Apr; 46(2): xi-xii, 174-426

Restorative dentistry. Dental Clinics of North America. 2002 Apr; 46(2): xi-xii, 174-426

How xylitol containing products affect cariogenic bacteria. Roberts MC, Reidy CA, Coldwell SE, Nagahama S, Judge K, Lam M, Kaakko T, Castillo JL, Milgrom P. Journal of the American Dental Association. 2002 Apr; 133(4): 435-41, 491-4 (23 ref)

Beyond brushing. Other oral health tools. Gutowski S. Diabetes Self Management. 2002 Sep-Oct; 19(5): 98, 101-2, 104-5

Anticaries efficacy of a sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice containing xylitol in a dicalcium phosphate dihydrate base. A 30-month caries clinical study in Costa Rica. Sintes JL, Elias Boneta A, Stewart B, Volpe AR, Lovett J. Am. J. Dent. 2002 Aug; 15(4): 215-9

The effect of polyol-combinant saliva stimulants on S. mutans levels in plaque and saliva of patients with mental retardation. Makinen KK, Isotupa KP, Kivilompolo T, Makinen PL, Murtomaa S, Petaja J, Toivanen J, Soderling E. Spec. Care. Dentist. 2002 Sep-Oct; 22(5): 187-93

Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries. Barber LR, Wilkins EM. J-Dent-Hyg. 2002 Fall; 76(4): 270-5

Inactivation of the Streptococcus mutans fxpC gene confers resistance to xylitol, a caries-preventative natural carbohydrate sweetener. Benchabane H, Lortie LA, Buckley ND, Trahan L, Frenette M. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun; 81(6): 380-6

Effect of xylitol chewing gum on salivary Streptococcus mutans in preschool children. Autio JT. ASDC J. Dent. Child. 2002 Jan-Apr; 69(1): 81-6, 13

Xylitol – cavity-fighting sweetener a possible solution for osteoporosis. Dean W. Townsend-Lett. 2002 May; 226: 80-2

2001

Sderling E., Isokangas P., Pienihkkinen K., Tenovuo J., Alanen P. 2001. Influence of maternal xylitol consumption on mother -child transmission of mutans streptococci: 6-year follow-up. Caries research (Switzerland) 35:173-177.

Mkinen K.K., Isotupa K.P., Kivilompolo T., Mkinen P.L., Toivanen J., Sderling E. 2001. Caries reserach 35:129-135.

Goncalves N.C., Valsecki Junior A., Salvador S.L., Bergamo G.C. 2001. Effect of sodium fluoride mouth rinses containing xylitol and sorbitol on the number of Streptococcus mutans from human saliva. Revista panamericana de salud publica 9: 30 -34.

Autio J.T., Courtsa F.J. 2001, Acceptance of the xylitol chewing gum regimen by prescholl children and teachers in a Head Start program: a pilot study. Pediatric dentistry 23: 71-74.

Tapiainen T., Kontiokari T., Sammalkivi L., Ikheimo L.,Koskela M., Uhari M. 2001. Effect of xylitol on growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the presencefructose and sorbitol. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 45:66-169.

2000

Uhari M., Tapiainen T., Kontiokari T. 2000. Xylitol in preventing acute otitis media. Vaccine 19 Suppl 1, 144-147.

Hrimech M., Mayrand D, Grenier D., Trahan L. 2000. Xylitol disturbs protein synthesis, including the expression of HSP-70 and HSP-60, in Streptococcus mutans. Oral microbiology and immunology 15:49-257.

Isokangas P., Sderling E., Pienihkkinen K., Alanen P. 2000. Occurence of dental decay in children after maternal consumption of xylitol chewing gum,, a follow-up from 0 to 5 years of age. Journal of dental research 79:885 -1889.

Zabner J., Seiler M.P., Launschpach J.L., Karp P.H., Kearney W.R., Look D.C., Smith J.J., Welsh M.J. 2000. The Osmolyte xylitol reduces the salt concentration of airway surface liquid and may enhance bacterial killing. Proceedings of National Academy of sciences of the United States of America 97:1614 -11619.

Knuuttila M.L., Kuoksa T.H., Svanberg M.J., Mattila P.T., Karjalainen K.M., Kolehmainen E. 2000. Effects of dietary xylitol on collagen content and glycosylation in healthy and diebetic rats. Life Sciences 67:283-290.

Hildebrand G.H., Sparks B.S. 2000. Maintaining mutans streptococci suppression with xylitol chewing gum. Journal of the American Dental Association 131:909-916.

Alanen P., Isokangas P., Gutman K. 2000. Xylitol candies in caries prevention: results of a field study in Estonian children. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology 28:218-224.

Klein J.O.2000. Nonimmune strategies for prevention of otitis media. Pediatric infectious disease journal 19 Suppl.5, 89-32.

Mkinen K.K. 2000. Thew rocky road of xylitol of its clinical application. Journal of dental research 79:1352-1355.

Mkinen K.K. 2000. Can the pentitol -hexitol theory explain the clinical observations made with xylitol? Medical hypotheses 54:603-613.

Sderling E., Isokangas p., Pienihkkinen K., Tenovuo J. 2000. Influence of maternal xylitol consumtion on acquisition of mutans streptococci by infants. Journal of dental research 79:882-887.

Lam M., Riedy C.A., Coldwell S.E., Milgrom P., Craig R. 2000. Children’s acceptance of xylito-based foods. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology 28:97-101.

Gales M.A., Nguyen T.M. 2000. Sorbitol compared with xylitol in prevention of dental caries. Annals of pharmacotherapy 34:98-100.

1999

Honkala S., Honkala E., Tynjala J., Kannas L 1999. Use of xylitol chewing gum among Finnish schoolchildren. Acta odontologica Scandinavica 57:306-309.

Kontiokari T., Svanberg M., Mattila P., Leinonen M., Uhari M. 1999. Quantitative analysis of the effect of xylitol on pneumococcal nasal colonisation in rats. FEMS microbiology letters 178:313-317.

Amaechi BT., Higham SM., Edgar WM. 1999. Caries Inhibiting and remineralizing effect of xylitol in vitro. Journal of oral science 41:71-76.

Simons D., Beighton D., Kidd EA., Collier FI. 1999. The effect of xylitol and chlorhexidine acetate/xylitol chewing gums on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Journal of clinical periondotology 26:388-391.

Hujoel P.P., Mkinen K.K., Bennet C.A., Isotupa K.P., Isokangas P.J., Allen P, Mkinen P.L. 1999. The optimum time to initiate habitual xylitol gum-chewing for obtaining long-term caries prevention. Journal of dental research 78:797-803.

Lagace E. 1999. Xylitol for prevention of acute otitis media. Journal of family practise 48:89.

Giertsen E., Emberland H., Scheie A.A. 1999. Effects of mouth rinses with xylitol and fluoride on dental plaque and saliva. Caries research 33:23-31.

Kvist C., Andersson S.B., Fors S., Wennergren B., Berglund J. 1999. Apparatus for studying in vitro drug release from medicated chewing gums. International Journal of Pharmaceutics (INT.J.PHARM.) 189/1, 57-65.

Aldous M.B. 1999. Xylitol Syryp and xylitol chewing gum were both effective in preventing acute otitis media. Evidence-Based Medicine (EVID.-BASED MED.) 4/3, 76.

Mattila P., Knuuttila M., Kovanen V., Svanberg M. 1999. Improved bone biomechanical properties in rats after oral xylitol administration. Calcified Tissue International (CALSIF.TISSUE INT.) 64/4, 340-344.

Kontiokari T., Svanberg M., Mattila P., Leinonen M., Uhari M. 1999. Quantitative analysis of the effect of Xylitol on pneumococcal colonization in rats. Pediatric Research 45 (4 PART 2), 165 A.

Kontiokari T., Niemel M., Uhari M. 1999. Effect of Xylitol on the resolution of middle ear effusion in acute otitis media. Pediatric Research 45 (4 PART 2), 165A.

1998

Kontiokari, T., Uhari, M. and Koskela, M. 1998. Antiadhesive effects of xylitol on otopathogenic bacteria. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 41: 563-565.

Mattila, P.T., Knuuttila, M.L.E. and Svanberg, M.J. 1998. Dietary xylitol supplementation prevents osteoporotic changes in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Metabolism 47: 578-583.

Mattila, P.T., Svanberg, M.J. and Knuuttila, M.L.E. 1998. Dietary xylitol protects against osseal changes in experimental osteoporosis. In: Burchardt P, Dawson-Hughes B, Heaney RP, eds. Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis. Springer: Heidelberg, Chapter 16, pp. 157-162.

Mkinen, K.K., Olak, J., Russak, S., Saag, M., Seedre, T., Vasar, R., Vihalemm, T., Mikelsaar, M. and Mkinen, P.-L. 1998. Polyol-combinant saliva stimulants: a 4-month pilot study in young adults. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 56:90-94.

Mkinen, K.K., Chiego, D.J., Jr., Allen, P., Bennett, C., Isotupa, K.P., Tiekso, J. and Mkinen, P.-L. 1998. Physical, chemical, and histologic changes in dentin caries lesions of primary teeth induced by regular use of polyol chewing gums. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 56:148-156.

Sderling, E., Trahan, L. and Lenander-Lumikari, M. 1998. Growth of xylitol-resistant versus xylitol-sensitive Streptococcus mutans strains in saliva. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 56: 116-121.

Uhari, M., Kontiokari, T. and Niemel, M. 1998. A novel use of xylitol sugar in preventing acute otitis media. Pediatrics 102: 879-884.

Hujoel, P.P., Mkinen, K.K., Bennett C. A., Isotupa K.P., Isokangas P.J. and Mkinen P.-L. 1998. The Optimum Time to Initiate Habitual Xylitol Gum Chewing For Obtaining Long-term Caries Prevention. Journal of Dental Research. In Press.

Mattila, P., Svanberg, M., Pkk, P. et al. 1998. Dietary xylitol protects against weakening of bone biomechanical properties in ovariectomized rats. Journal of Nutrition 128:1811-1814.

Mkinen, K.K. 1998. Xylitol-based caries prevention: is there enough evidence for the existence of a specific xylitol effect? Oral Diseases. In press.

1997

Alanen, P. ja Isokangas, P. 1997. Ksylitolikaramelli ehkisee kariesta yht hyvin kuin ksylitolipurukumi. Suomen Hammaslkrilehti, N.s. Vol IV:2019-2023.

Mkinen, K.K. 1997. History, safety, and dental properties of xylitol. In “Xylitol from A to Z”, ed. by Mkinen, K. K., Suzuki A. and Fukuda, M. TP Japan Press, Tokyo. (In Japanese.) Chapter 2, pp.10-23.

Mkinen, K.K. 1997. Mechanism of the action of xylitol in caries prevention. In “Xylitol from A to Z”, ed. by Mkinen, K. K., Suzuki A. and Fukuda, M. TP Japan Press, Tokyo. (In Japanese.) Chapter 3, pp. 24-38.

Svanberg, M., Mattila, P. and Knuuttila, M. 1997. Dietary xylitol retards the ovariectomy-induced increase of bone turnover in rats. Calcified Tissue International 60:462-466.

Sderling, E., Trahan, L., Tammiala-Salonen, T.and Hkkinen, L. 1997. Xylitol and xylitol-sorbitol chewing gum vs. gum base-induced effects on the plaque of subjects with hihg numbers of xylitol-resistant mutans streptococci. European Journal of Oral Sciences 105: 170-177.

1996

Honkala, E., Rimpel, A., Karvonen, S. and Rimpel M. 1996. Chewing of xylitol gum – a well adopted practice among finnish adoolescents. Caries Research 30:34-39.

Hujoel, P.P., Mkinen, K.K., Bennett, C.A., Isokangas, P.J., Isotupa, K.P., Pape, H.R., Jr., Lamont, R.J., DeRouen, T.A. and Davis, S. 1996. Do caries explorers transmit infections within persons? – an evaluation of second molar caries onsets. Caries Research. 29:461-466.

Mattila, P.T., Svanberg, M.J., Mkinen, K.K. and Knuuttila, M.L.E. 1996. Dietary xylitol, sorbitol and D-mannitol but not erythritol retard bone resorption in rats. Journal of Nutrition. 126:1865-1870.

Mkinen, K.K., Chen, C.-Y., Mkinen, P.-L., Bennett, C.A., Isokangas, P.J., Isotupa, K.P. and Pape, H.R., Jr. 1996. Properties of whole saliva and dental plaque in relation to 40-month consumption of chewing-gums containing xylitol, sorbitol, or sucrose. Caries Research. 30:180-188.

Mkinen, K.K., Mkinen, P.-L., Pape, H.R., Jr., Peldyak, J., Hujoel, P., Isotupa, K.P., Sderling, E., Isokangas, P.J., Allen, P. and Bennett, C.A. 1996. Conclusion and review of the “Michigan Xylitol Programme” (1986-1995) for prevention of Dental Caries. International Dental Journal. 46:22-34.

Mkinen, K.K., Hujoel, P.P., Bennett, C.A., Isotupa, K.P., Mkinen, P.-L. and Allen, P. 1996. Polyol chewing gums and caries rates in primary dentition: a 24-month cohort study. Caries Research. 30:408-417.

Mkinen, K.K., Pemberton, D., Mkinen, P.-L., Chen, C.-Y., Cole, J., Hujoel, P.P., Lopatin, D. and Lambert, P. 1996. Polyol-combinant saliva stimulants and oral health in Veterans Affairs Patients – An exploratory study. Journal of Special Care in Dentistry. 16:104-115.

Mkinen, K.K., Chen, C.-Y., Mkinen, P.-L., Bennett C.A., Isokangas, P.J., Isotupa, K.P. and Pape,H.R., Jr. 1996. Properties of whole saliva and dental plaque in relation to 40-month consumption of chewing gums containing xylitol, sorbitol or sucrose. Caries Research 30:180-188.

Uhari, M., Kontiokari, T., Koskela, M. et al 1996. Xylitol chewing gum in prevention of acute otitis media: double blind randomised trial. British Medical Journal 313:1180-1184.

Virtanen, J.I., Bloigu, R.S. and Larmas, M.A. 1996. Timing of first restoration before, during, and after a preventive xylitol trial. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 54:211-216.

1995

Alanen, P. and Isokangas, P. 1995. Uusi ksylitolin kentttutkimus kynniss Virossa. Suomen Hammaslkrilehti N.s. Vol II:1222-1224.

Isotupa, K.P., Gunn, S., Chen, C.-Y., Lopatin, D. and Mkinen, K.K. 1995. Effect of polyol gums on dental plaque in orthodontic patients. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. 107:497-504.

Kontiokari, T., Uhari, M. and Koskela, M. 1995. Effect of xylitol on growth of naso-pharyngeal bacteria in vitro. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 39: 1820-1823.

Mattila, P., Svanberg, M. and Knuuttila, M. 1995. Diminished bone resorption after xylitol administration: A dose-response study. Calcified Tissue International 56: 232-235.

Merikallio, T. and Sderling, E. 1995. Xylitol as a plaque-control agent in military conditions. Military Medicine 160: 256-258.

Mkinen, K.K., Allen, P., Bennett C.A., Isokangas, P.J., Isotupa, K.P., Mkinen, P.-L. and Pape, H.R. Jr. 1995. Stabilisation of rampant caries: polyol gums and arrest of dentine caries in two long-term cohort studies in young subjects. International Dental Journal. 45:93-107.

Mkinen, K.K. Bennett, C.A., Hujoel, P.P., Isokangas, P.J., Isotupa, K.P., Pape, H.R., Jr. and Mkinen, P.-L. 1995. Xylitol chewing gums and caries rates: A 40-month cohort study. Journal of Dental Research. 74:1904-1913.

Mkinen, K.K., Pemberton, D., Cole, J., Mkinen, P.-L., Chen, C.-Y. and Lambert, P. 1995. Saliva stimulants and the oral health of geriatric patients. Advances in Dental Research. 9:125-126.

Tjderhane, L., Hietala, E.-L., Svanberg, M. and Larmas, M. 1995. Morphological analysis of dentine formation in young rat molars during the recovery phase with calcium alone or combined with xylitol following a low-calcium dietary regimen. Archives of Oral Biology 40:707-711.

1994

Hujoel, P.P, Isokangs, P.J., Tiekso, J., Davis, S., Alexander, R., Lamont, R., DeRouen, T. A. and Mkinen, K. K. 1994. The analysis of caries rates using Poisson regression models – A reanalysis of a preventive trial. Journal of Dental Research. 73(2):573-579.

Isokangas, P. 1994. Ksylitolin kytt kouluikisten kariespreventiossa. Julkaisussa “Fiksu Tapa – valtakunnallinen terveyskasvatustapahtuma”, ISBN 951-47-9605-5, Helsinki:4-16, STAKES.

Mkinen, K.K. 1994. Sugar alcohols. In “Functional Foods,” ed. by Israel Goldberg, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, Chapter 11. pp 219-241.

Pape, H.J., Jr. and Mkinen, K.K. 1994. Verification and maintenance of dental explorer sharpness. Operative Dentistry. 19:221-223.

Svanberg, M. and Knuuttila, M. 1994. Dietary xylitol retards bone resorption in rats. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolim 20:153-157.

Svanberg, M. and Knuuttila, M. 1994. Dietary xylitol prevents ovariectomy induced changes of bone inorganic fraction in rats. Bone and Mineral 26:81-88.

1993

Isokangas, P. 1993. Ksylitoli suun terveydenhuollossa. Julkaisussa “Profylaksian kannattavuus lasten ja nuorten hammashuollossa”, toim. Eeva Widstrm, Heikki Murtomaa, STAKES, Raportti 97.

Isokangas, P., Isotupa, K. ja Mkinen, K. 1993. Huomioita ksylitolipurukumin mainonnasta. Suomen Hammaslkrilehti XL:747.

Isokangas, P., Mkinen, K.K., Tiekso, J. and Alanen, P. 1993. Long-term effect of xylitol chewing gum in the prevention of dental caries: A follow-up five years after termination of a prevention program. Caries Research. 27:495-498.

Mkinen, K.K. 1993. Prevention of dental caries with xylitol — A potential dietary procedure for self-care and population-level use in young adults. Journal of American College Health. 41(4):172-180.

Mkinen, K.K. 1993. Prevention of dental caries by xylitol – issues relating to health claims. In “America’s Foods Health Messages and Claims: Scientific, Regulatory, and Legal Issues,” ed. by Tillotson, J.E., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, Chapter 12, pp. 167-192.

Scheinin, A., Sderling, E., Scheinin, U., Glass, R. L. and Kallio, M.-L. 1993. Xylitol induced changes of enamel microhardness paralleled by microradiographic observations. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 51: 241-246.

Svanberg, M. and Knuuttila, M. 1993. The effect of dietary xylitol on recalcifying and newly formed cortical long bones in rats. Calcified Tissue International 53:135-138.

Svanberg, M., Knuuttila ,M. and Hmlinen, M. 1993. Citric acid concentration compared to serum parathyroid hormone, 1,25(OH)2D3 and calcitonin during dietary Ca deficiency and rehabilitation enhanced with xylitol rats. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism 19:103-108.

1992

Isokangas, P., Mkinen, K., Tiekso, J. and Alanen, P. 1992. Ksylitolipurukumin pitkaikaisvaikutus kariespreventiossa. Suomen Hammaslkrilehti XXXIX:199-202.

Knuuttila, M. and Svanberg, M. 1992. Preventive effect of xylitol on bone Ca in ovari-ectomized rats. Connective Tissue Research 27: 176.

Masalin, K. 1992. Caries-risk-reducing effects of xylitol-containing chewing gum and tablets in confectionery workers in Finland. Community Dental Health 9:3-10.

Nuuja, T., Meurman, J.H., Murtomaa, H., Kortelainen, S., Metteri, J. 1992. The effect of a combination of chlorhexidine diacetate, sodium fluoride and xylitol on plaque wet weight and periodontal index scores in Military Academy cadets refraining from mechanical tooth cleaning for 7-day experimental periods. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 29:73-76.

Tenovuo, J. and Sderling, E. 1992. Chemical aids in the prevention of dental diseases in the elderly. International Dental Journal 42: 335-364.

Trahan, L., Sderling, E., Dren, M.-F., Chevrier, M.-C. and Isokangas, P. 1992. Effect of xylitol consumption on the plaque-saliva distribution of mutans streptococci and the occurrence and long-term survival of xylitol-resistant strains. Journal of Dental Reserach 71:1785-1791.

1991

Isokangas, P., Tenovuo, J., Sderling, E., Mnnist, H. and Mkinen, K.K. 1991. Dental caries and mutans streptococci in the proximal areas of molars affected by the habitual use of xylitol chewing gum. Caries Research. 25:444-448.

Mkinen, K.K. 1991. Dietary prevention of dental caries by xylitol – clinical effectiveness and safety. The Journal of Applied Nutrition. 44:16-28.

Mkinen, K.K. 1991. Prevention of dental caries by xylitol. Effect of single-component modification of diet on the incidence of dental caries in man. Environmental Management and Health. 2:6-11.

Sderling, E., Isokangas, P., Tenovuo, J., Mustakallio, S. and Mkinen, K.K. 1991. Long-term xylitol consumption and mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva. Caries Research. 25:153-157.

Sderling, E. and Scheinin, A. 1991. Perspectives on xylitol-induced oral effects. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 87: 217-229.

1990

Pihlanto-Leppl, A., Sderling, E. and Mkinen, K.K. 1990. Expulsion mechanism of xylitol 5-phosphate in Streptococcus mutans. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research. 98:112-119.

1989

Hmlinen, M.M. and Mkinen, K.K. 1989. Polyol-mineral interactions in the diet of the rat with special reference to the stabilities of polyol-metal complexes. Nutrition Research. 9:801-811.

Hmlinen, M.M. and Mkinen, K.K. 1989. Relationship between mineral metabolism and peroral consumption of sugar alcohols. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism. 15:346-352.

Isokangas, P., Tiekso, J., Alanen, P. and Mkinen, K.K. 1989. Long-term effect of xylitol on dental caries. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 17:200-203.

Karjalainen, S., Hannula, P. Sderling, E. Hmlinen, M., Mkinen, K. and Scheinin, A. 1989. Sucrose consumption and salivary sucrase activity in a 2-year longitudinal study. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research. 97:401-404.

Knuuttila, M., Svanberg, M. and Hmlinen, M. 1989. Alterations in rat bone composition related to polyol supplementation of the diet. Bone and Mineral 6:25-31.

Mkinen, K.K., Sderling, E., Isokangas, P., Tenovuo, J. and Tiekso, J. 1989. Oral biochemical status and depression of Streptococcus mutans in children during 24- to 36-month use of xylitol chewing gum. Caries Research. 23:261-267.

Mkinen, K.K., Sderling, E., Peacor, D.R. Mkinen, P.-L. and Park, L. M. 1989. Carbohydrate-controlled precipitation of apatite with coprecipitation of organic molecules in human saliva: Stabilizing role of polyols. Calcified Tissue International 44:258-268.

Mkinen, K.K. 1989. Latest dental studies on xylitol and mechanisms of action of xylitol in caries limitation. In: “Progress in Sweeteners”, ed. by Grenby,T.H., Elsevier, New York. Chapter 13, pp. 331-362.

Pihlanto-Leppl, A., Sderling, E. and Mkinen, K.K. 1989. Uptake of 14C-xylitol by xylitol-cultured Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27352 and Streptococcus mitis ATCC 36249 in vitro. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society. 85:423-428.

Sderling, E., Mkinen, K.K., Chen, C.-Y., Pape, H.R., Jr., Loesche, W. and Mkinen, P.-L. 1989. Effect of sorbitol, xylitol, and xylitol/sorbitol chewing gums on dental plaque. Caries Research. 23:378-384.

Sderling, E. and Pihlanto-Leppl, A. 1989. Uptake and expulsion of 14C-xylitol by xylitol-cultured Streptococcus ATCC 25175 in vitro. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 17:511-519.

1988

Isokangas, P., Alanen, P. Tiekso, J. and Mkinen, K.K. 1988. Xylitol chewing gum in caries prevention: A field study in children at caries-active ages. Journal of the American Dental Association 117:315-320.

Isokangas, P. 1988. Ksylitolipurukumin pitkaikaisvaikutukset karieksen ehkisyss. Terveyskeskushammaslkriyhdistyksen julkaisussa “Sokerit ja muut makeutusaineet” ss. 59-66.

Mkinen, K.K. and Isokangas, P. 1988. Relationship between carbohydrate sweeteners and oral diseases. Progress in Food and Nutrition Science. 12:73-109.

Mkinen, K.K. 1988. Sweeteners and prevention of dental caries with special reference to xylitol. Oral Health 78:57-66.

1987

p style=‘margin-left:3.35pt’>Hmlinen, M. M. 1987. Organic aciduria in rats fed high amounts of xylitol or sorbitol. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 90:217-226.
Hmlinen, M.M. and Mkinen, K.K. 1987. Adrenal function of the rat in relation to peroral administration of xylitol: depression of aldosterone. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 130:687-693.

Isokangas, P. 1987. Xylitol chewing gum in caries prevention. A longitudinal study on Finnish school children. Thesis, Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 83:(I) 1-117.

Isokangas, P. 1987. Ksylitolipurukumi hampaiden reikiintymisen ehkisijn. Kuspi 26:40-43.

Isokangas, P. 1987. Ksylitolipurukumi kariespreventiossa. Pitkittistutkimus suomalaisilla koululapsilla. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 83:285-288.

Mkinen, K.K., Sderling, E. and Likk, I. 1987. Sugar alcohols (polyols) as “active” toothpaste ingredients. Oral Prophylaxe 9:115-120 (in German).

Sderling, E., Alarisnen, L., Scheinin, A. and Mkinen, K.K. 1987. Effect of xylitol and sorbitol on polysaccharide production by and adhesive properties of Streptococcus mutans. Caries Research 21:109-116.

Sderling, E., Talonpoika, J. and Mkinen, K.K. 1987. Effect of xylitol-containing mixtures on acid and ammonia production in suspensions of salivary sediment. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 95:405-410.

1986

Hmlinen, M.H. and Mkinen, K.K. 1986. Alterations in electrolyte and iron metabolism in the rat in relation to peroral administration of galactitol, mannitol and xylitol. Journal of Nutrition 116:599-609.

Mykknen, H.M. and Salminen, S.J. 1986. Effects of xylitol on the absorption of 203 Pb in mice and cockerels. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 37:77-80.

Mkinen, K.K. and Hmlinen, M. 1986. Biochemical and morphological changes of the rat adrenal medulla induced by peroral xylitol. Archives of Toxicology 59:192-193.

Sderling, E. and Mkinen, K.K. 1986. Aggregation of human salivary Ca-proteinates in the presence of simple carbohydrates in vitro. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 94:125-31.

1985

Hmlinen, M., Mkinen, K.K., Parviainen, M. and Koskinen, T. 1985. Peroral xylitol increases intestinal calcium absorption in the rat independently from vitamin D action. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism 11:178-181.

Hmlinen, M. and Mkinen, K.K. 1985. Duodenal xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2) and ferroxidase activities in the rat in relation to the increased iron absorption caused by peroral xylitol. British Journal of Nutrition 54:493-498.

Mkinen, K.K. and Hmlinen, M. 1985. Metabolic effects in rats of high oral doses of galactitol, mannitol and xylitol. Journal of Nutrition 115:890-899.

Mkinen, K.K., Sderling, E., Hurttia, H., Lehtonen O.-P. and Luukkala, E. 1985. Biochemical, microbiological and clinical comparisons between two dentifrices containing different mixtures of sugar alcohols (polyols). Journal of American Dental Association 111:745-751.

Mkinen, K.K., Sderling, E., Hmlinen M. and Antonen, P. 1985. Effect of long-term use of xylitol on dental plaque. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 81:28-35.

Mkinen, K.K., Virtanen, K. Sderling, E. and Kotiranta, A. 1985. Effect of xylitol-, sucrose- and water-rinses on the composition of human palatine gland secretions. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 93:233-261.

Mkinen, K.K. 1985. Effects of sugars and sugar alcohols on peroxidases. In “Chemistry and Biological Significance of the Lactoperoxidase System” (Pruitt, K. and Tenovuo, J., eds.) Marcel Dekker, New York, Chapter 10, p.p. 203-215.

Mkinen, K.K. 1985. New biochemical aspects of sweeteners. International Dental Journal 35:23-35.

1984

Luostarinen, V., Mkinen, K.K. and Mkinen, P.L. 1984. Effects on oral health of xylitol, sodium cyclamate- and sucrose-sweetened mouth rinses in the absence of oral hygiene. V. Response of hamster cheek pouch microcirculation to dental plaque. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 80:35-39.

Mkinen, K.K. 1984. Effect of long-term, peroral administration of sugar alcohols on man. Swedish Dental Journal 8:113-124.

Mkinen, K.K., Hurttia, H., Mkinen, P.L. and Paunio, K. 1984. Effects on oral health of xylitol, sodium cyclamate- and sucrose-sweetened mouthrinses in the absence of oral hygiene. II. Free amino acid composition of human crevicular fluid in relation to simultaneous neglect of oral hygiene and use of sucrose, xylitol and sodium cyclamate mouthrinses. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 8:13-19.

Mkinen, K.K. and Sderling, E. 1984. Solubility of calcium salts, enamel and hydroxyapatite in aqueous solutions of simple carbohydrates. Calcified Tissue International 36:64-74.

Mkinen, K.K., Virtanen, K.K., Mkinen, P.-L., Sderling, E., Neva, M., Sinisalo, T. and Klling, D. 1984. Effect of single oral doses of sucrose and xylitol on human parotid saliva. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 80:186-200.

Paunio, K., Hurttia, H., Tenovuo, J., Mkinen, K.K. and Tiekso, J. 1984. Effects on oral health of xylitol-, sodium cyclamate- and sucrose-sweetened mouth rinses in the absence of oral hygiene. I. Clinical findings and analysis of gingival exudate. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 80:3-12.

Salminen, E., Salminen, S., Porkka, L., Koivistoinen, P. 1984. The effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and secretion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide in the rat. Journal Nutrition 114:2201-2203.

Tenovuo, J., Mkinen, K.K. and Paunio, K. 1984. Effects on oral health of xylitol-, sodium cyclamate- and sucrose-sweetened mouth rinses in the absence of oral hygiene. IV. Analysis of whole saliva. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 80:23-34.

1983

Hurttia, H., Multanen, V.M., Mkinen, K.K., J. and Paunio, K. 1983. Effects on oral health of xylitol, sodium cyclamate- and sucrose-sweetened mouth rinses in the absence of oral hygiene. III. Composition and bone resorbing potential of dental plaque. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 80:20-27.

Hyvnen, L. and Trm, R. 1983. Examination of sugars, sugar alcohols, and artificial sweeteners as substitutes for sucrose in strawberry jam. Keeping quality tests. Journal of Food Science 48:186-192.

Hmlinen, M. and Mkinen, K.K. 1983. Effect of peroral xylitol on the concentration levels of fats and electrolytes in rat tissues. Nutrition Research 3:497-510.

Hmlinen, M. and Mkinen, K.K. 1983. Peroral xylitol increases the concentration levels of tissue iron in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 50:109-112.

Mkinen, K.K., Sderling, E. and Klling, D. 1983. Secretory activity of salivary gland slices in the presence of polyols. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 79:218-223.

Mielityinen, H., Tenovuo, J., Sderling, E., Paunio, K. 1983. Effect of xylitol and sucrose plaque on release of lysosomal enzymes from bones and macrophages in vitro. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 41:173-180.

Mkinen, K.K. 1983. Xylitol – a procedure of caries prophylaxis for the new generation. Revista Brasileira de Odontologia 15: 4-50. The same in Portuguese in the above issue (15: 20-33).

Tuompo, H., Meurman, J.H., Lounatmaa, K. and Linkola, J. 1983. Effect of xylitol and other carbon sources on the cell wall of Streptococcus mutans. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 91: 17-25.

1982

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1982. Xylitol and dental caries. Annual Review of Nutrition 2:133-150.

Rekola, M. 1982. A. comparison of the effects of xylitol and sorbitol sweetened chewing gums on dental plaque. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 78:128-133.

Scheinin, A. 1982. Sucrose substitutes. In “Pediatric dentistry, scientific foundations and clinical practice”, ed. by Stewart, R.E., Barber, T.K., Troutman, K.C., Wei, S.H.Y.C.V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, Missouri. P.p. 590-597.

1981

Hmlinen, M. and Mkinen, K.K. 1981. Metabolism of perorally administered xylitol in rat tissues. Journal of Nutrition 111:107-122.

Mkinen, K.K., Hmlinen, M., Tuori, M. and Poutainen, E. 1981. A polyol mixture in the diet of dairy cows. Nutrition Reports International 23:1077-1087.

Mkinen, K.K. and Knuuttila, M.L.E. 1981. Extracellular hydrolase activity of the cells of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans isolated from man and grown on glucose or xylitol. Archives of Oral Biology 26:899-904.

Mkinen, K.K., Klling, D. and Mkinen, P.-L. 1981. The effect of high oral dosage of xylitol and sucrose on the biochemical properties of whole saliva in human volunteers after long-term regular consumption of xylitol. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 77:262-270.

Mkinen, K.K., Nsi, M. and Alaviuhkola, T. 1981. On the chemical composition of sow milk during polyol feeding. Nutrition Reports International 23:793-797.

Mkinen, K.K., Mkinen, P.-L., Ylikahri, R., Sderling, E. and Hmlinen, M. 1981. Turku sugar studies. XXIII. Comparison of metabolic tolerance in human volunteers to high oral doses of xylitol and sucrose after long-term regular consumption of xylitol. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research Suppl. 22 pp. 29-51.

Mkinen, K.K. and Sderling, E. 1981. Effect of xylitol on some food-spoilage microorganisms. Journal of Food Science 46:950-951.

Mkinen, K.K., Ylikahri, R., Sderling, E., Mkinen, P.-L. and Scheinin, A. 1981. Turku sugar studies. XXII. A re-examination of the subjects. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research suppl. 22 pp 9-28.

Mkinen, K.K. 1981. Approaches to Food Modification: Xylitol. In Foods, Nutrition and Dental Health (Hefferren, J.J. and Koehler, H.M., ed.), Pathotox Publishers, Park Forest South, III., Vol.I, pp. 83-96.

Pakkala, U., Liesmaa, H. and Mkinen, K.K. 1981. The use of xylitol in the control of oral hygiene in mentally retarded children. A clinical and biochemical study. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 77:271-277. Also published in Tidskrift for Tandlaeger 1:15-20, 1981, in Danish.

Rekola, M. 1981. Comparative effects of xylitol-and sucrose-sweetened chew tablets and chewing gums on plaque quantity. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 89:393-399.

Tenovuo, J., Mielityinen, H., Paunio, K. 1981. The effect of dental plaque grown in the presence of xylitol or sucrose on bone resorption in vitro. Pharmacology and Therapeutics in Dentistry 6:35-43.

Virtanen, K. and Mkinen, K.K. 1981. Effect of peroral administration of xylitol on the structure of the palatal mucosa, submandibular glands and the duodenum wall. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 77:228-231.

1980

Mkinen, K.K. 1980. Comparison between xylitol and glucose in a peroral feeding study in rats with special consideration of exocrine gland and gut wall biochemistry. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 50:84-91.

Mkinen, K.K., Klling, D. and Sderling, E. 1980. Exocrine gland enzyme levels after peroral administration of xylitol and sorbitol in the rat. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 50:79-83.

Mkinen, K.K., Likk, I., Rekola, M. and Scheinin, A. 1980. Die Wirkung von Xylit und Sorbit auf die Biochemie der Plaque. Kariesprophylaxe 3:103-113.

Mkinen, K.K. and Sderling, E. 1980. A quantitative study of mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol and xylose in Finnish wild berries and commercial fruits from other countries. Journal of Food Science 45:367-374.

Mkinen, K.K. and Tenovuo, J. 1980. Effect of peroral administration of xylitol on human milk. Nutrition Reports International 22:793-800.

Rekola, M., Likk, I., Anttonen, H., Scheinin, A. and Mkinen, K.K. 1980. Die Wirkung von Xylit- und sorbithaltiger Kaugummis auf Plaque und Speichel.Teil I: Klinische Aspekte. Kariesprophylaxe 2:21-27.

1979

Ainamo, J., Asikainen, S., Ainamo A., Lahtinen, A., Sjblom, M. 1979.

Plaque growth while chewing sorbitol and xylitol simultaneously with sucrose flavored gum. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 6:397-406.

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1979. Ksylitolin terveydelliset vaikutukset (The health effects of xylitol). For a Finnish encyclopedia (Areena), pp.129-138.

Mkinen, K.K. 1979. Effect of xylitol and oral health. Advances in Food Research Vol. 25:137-158.

Mkinen, K.K. 1979. ber die Mglichkeiten, die chemische Wirksamkeit der Abwehrsysteme oraler Wirtsorganismen durch die Anwendung von Xylit zuerhohen. Kariesprophylaxe 1:131-136.

Ylikahri, R. 1979. Metabolic and nutritional aspects of xylitol. In “Advances in food research” (ed. by Chichester, C.O.). Academic Press, New York. Vol 25:159-180.

1978

Harjola, U. and Liesmaa, H. 1978. Effects of polyol and sucrose candies on plaque, gingivitis and lactobacillius index scores. Observations on Helsinki school children. Acta Odontologica Scandinavia 36:237-242.

Mkinen, K.K. 1078. Setting criteria for appropriateness of various carbohydrate sweeteners. In “Health and Sugar Substitutes” (ed. by Guggenheim, B.). Karger, Basel, pp. 247-252.

Mkinen, K.K. 1978. Sugar alcohols in animal and human nutrition. In “Health and Sugar Substitutes” (ed. by Guggenheim, B.). Karger, Basel, pp. 103-108.

Mkinen, K.K, Bowen, W.H. Dalgard, D. and Fitzgerald, G. 1978. Effect of peroral administration of xylitol on exocrine secretions of monkeys. Journal of Nutrition 108:779-789.

Mkinen, K.K. 1978. Principles of the use of xylitol in medicine and nutrition with special consideration of dental aspects. Experientia Suppl.30:1-160.

Mkinen, K.K. 1978. The use of xylitol in nutritional and medical research with special reference to dental caries. Proceedings “Sweeteners and Dental Caries”. Eds. Shaw, J.H. and Roussos, G.G. Sp. Suppl. Feeding, Weight and Obesity Abstracts, 193-224.

Mkinen, K.K. 1978. Biochemical findings in exocrine secretions in relation to peroral administration of xylitol. In “Xylitol” (ed. by Counsell, J.N.). Applied Science Publishers Ltd.(Barking, England), Chapter 6.

Mkinen, K.K. and Virtanen, K.K. 1978. Effect of 4.5-year use of xylitol and sorbitol on plaque. Journal of Dental Research 57: 441-446.

Mkinen, K.K., Sderling, E., Mkinen, P.-L. and Tenovuo, J.1978. Effect of peroral administration of xylitol on the oxidoreductase activity of human blood cells and certain chemical properties of saliva and serum. International Journal of Vitamin Nutrition Research 48:405-410.

Scheinin, A. 1978. Clinical trials on sugar substitutes. In “Health and Sugar Substitutes” (ed. by Guggenheim, B.). Karger, Basel, pp. 241-246.

1977

Bird, J.L., Baum, B.J., Mkinen, K.K. Bowen, W.H., Dalgard, D. and Fitzgerald, G.F. 1977. Xylitol associated changes in amylase and protein content of monkey parotid saliva. Journal of Nutrition 107:1763-1767.

Mkinen, K.K. 1977. Xylitol, a sugar against dental decay. Dragoco Bericht (in German), 22: 76-83. Also published in English, French, Italian and Spanish. Also in Die Ernhrungsdienst 12: 11-13.

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1977. Etudes de Turku sur les sucres. (Conference prononcee lors du Congres Dentaire Francaise, 4 decembre 1976). Le Chirurgien-Dentiste de France. Also published in Polish (Ozasopismo Stomatologiczne XXX 6:481-489.)

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1977. Turku Zuckerstudien. Deutsche Zahnrtzliches Zeitschrift Suppl. I 32:576-583.

Rekola M. and Scheinin, A. 1977. Quantification of dental plaque through planimetric analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 85:51-55.

1976

Mkinen, K.K. and Rekola, M. 1976. Xylitol-binding in dental plaque. Journal of Dental Research 55:900-904.

Mkinen, K.K. 1976. Xylitol: a therapeutic and caries-inhibitory natural carbohydrate. New Mexico Dental Journal 26:13 and 22.

Mkinen, K.K. 1976. Xylitol: The sugar that prevents tooth decay. The Futurist (Bethesda, Maryland) pp.135-139.

Mkinen, K.K. 1976. Dental aspects of the consumption of xylitol and fructose diets. International Dental Journal 26:14-28.

Mkinen, K.K. 1976. Possible mechanisms for the cariostatic effects of xylitol. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research Suppl. 15, 368-379.

Mkinen, K.K. 1976. Long-term tolerance of healthy human subjects to high amounts of xylitol and fructose: General and biochemical findings. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research Suppl. 15, 92-103.

Mkinen, K.K., Tenovuo, J. and Scheinin, A. 1976. Xylitol-induced increase of lactoperoxidase activity. Journal of Dental Research 55:652-660.

Mkinen, K.K. 1976. Microbial growth and metabolism in plaque in the presence of sugar alcohols. Proceedings “Microbial Aspects in Dental Caries”. Eds. Stiles, Loesche and O’Brien. Sp. Suppl. Microbiology Abstracts Vol. 11: 521-538.

1975

Gehring, F., Mkinen, K.K., Larmas, M. and Scheinin A. 1975. Turku sugar studies. X. Occurrence of polysaccharide-forming streptococci and ability of mixed plaque microbiota to ferment various carbohydrates. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:223-237.

Huttunen, J.K., Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1975. Turku sugar studies. XI. Effects of sucrose, fructose and xylitol diets on glucose, lipid and urate metabolism. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:247-263.

Knuuttila, M.L.E. and Mkinen, K.K. 1975. Effect of xylitol on the growth and metabolism of Streptococcus mutans. Caries Research 9:177-189.

Larmas, M., Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1975. Turku sugar studies. VIII. Principal microbiological findings. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70., 33:173-216.

Larmas, M., Scheinin, A. Gehring, F. and Mkinen, K.K. 1975. Turku sugar studies. XX. Microbiological findings and plaque index values in relation to 1-year use of xylitol chewing gum. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:321-336.

Luostarinen, V., Paunio, K., Varrela, J., Rekola, M., Luoma, S., Scheinin, A. and Mkinen, K.K. 1975. Turku sugar studies. XV. Vascular reactions in the hamster cheek pouch to human gingival exudate. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:287-291.

Mouton, C., Scheinin, A. and Mkinen, K.K. 1975. Effect on plaque of a xylitol-containing chewing gum. A pilot study. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 33:27-31.

Mouton, C., Scheinin, A. and Mkinen, K.K. 1975. Effect on plaque of a xylitol-containing chewing gum. A clinical and biochemical study. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 33:33-40.

Mouton, C., Scheinin, A. and Mkinen, K.K. 1975. Effect of a xylitol chewing gum on plaque quantity and quality. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 33:251-257.

Mkinen, K.K., Likk, I. Scheinin, A. and Paunio, K.U. 1975. Turku sugar studies. XVII. The activity of glycosidases in oral fluids and plaque. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:297-306.

Mkinen, K.K., Lnnberg, P. and Scheinin, A. 1975. Turku sugar studies. XIV. Amino acid analysis of saliva. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:277-286.

Mkinen, K.K., Mielityinen, H. and Scheinin, A. 1975. Turku sugar studies. XVI. Disc electrophoresis of serum. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:293-295.

Mkinen, K.K., Ojanotko, A. and Vidgren, H. 1975. Effect of xylitol on the growth of Candida albicans. Journal of Dental Research 54:1239.

Mkinen, K.K. and Rekola, M. 1975. Comparison between sucrose and lactulose in a suspended salivary system. Journal of Dental Research 54:1244.

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1975. Turku sugar studies. XIII. Effect of the diet on certain clinico-chemical values of serum. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:265-276.

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1975. Eriden ravinnossa esiintyvien sokerien vlist vertailua (in Finnish) (Comparison of the dental aspects of some dietary sugars). Journal of the Finnish Dental Association 21:1126-1143, 1974. The same has been published in Swedish (Tandlkartidningen 67 I:8-20, 1975, and Odontologiska Samfundet i Finland, rsbok , 49-71, 1975), in French (Le Chirurgien-Dentiste de France 14 mai 1975, 51-55), and in German and English through the Information Service of F. Hoffman-La Roche and Company AG, Basel, 1975.

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1975. Turku sugar studies. VI. The administration of the trial and the control of the dietary regimen. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33: 105-127.

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1975. Turku sugar studies. VII. Principle biochemical findings of whole saliva and plaque. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:129-171.

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1975. Turku sugar studies. XIX. Salivary peroxidase and invertase-like activity in relation to 1-year use of sucrose and xylitol chewing gum. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70., 33:317-320.

Mkinen, K.K., Tenovuo, J. and Scheinin, A. 1975. Turku sugar studies. XII. The effect of the diet on oral peroxidases, redox potential and the concentration of ionized fluorine, iodine and thiocyanate. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:247-263.

Paunio, K., Mkinen, K.K., Scheinin, A. and Ylitalo K. 1975. Turku sugar studies. IX. Principal periodontal findings. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:217-222.

Scheinin, A., Mkinen, K.K., Tammisalo, E. and Rekola, M. 1975. Turku sugar studies. XVIII. Incidence of dental caries in relation to 1-year consumption of xylitol chewing gum. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:307-316

Scheinin, A., Mkinen, K.K. and Ylitalo, K. 1975. Turku sugar studies. V. Final report on the effect of sucrose, fructose and xylitol diets on the caries incidence in man. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:67-104.

Sderling, E., Rekola, M., Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1975. Turku sugar studies. XXI. Xylitol-, sorbitol-, fructose- and sucrose-induced physico-chemical changes in saliva. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Suppl. 70, 33:337-343.

1974

Aminoff, C. 1974. New carbohydrate sweeteners. In “Sugars in Nutrition” (ed. by Sipple, H.L. and Mc Nutt, K.W.). Academic Press, New York, pp. 135-142.

Gehring, F., Mkinen, K.K., Larmas, M. and Scheinin, A. 1974. Turku sugar studies. IV. An intermediate report on the differentiation of polysaccharide-forming streptococci (S. mutans) Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 32:435-444.

Larmas, M., Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1974. Turku sugar studies. III. An intermediate report on the effect of sucrose, fructose and xylitol diets on the numbers of salivary lactobacilli, candida and streptococci. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 32:423-433.

Mkinen, K. 1974. Sugars and the formation of dental plaque. In “Sugars in Nutrition” (ed. by Sipple, H.L. and Mc Nutt, K.W.). Academic Press, New York, pp 645-687).

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1974. Turku sugar studies. II. Preliminary biochemical and general findings. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 32:413-421.

Scheinin, A., Mkinen, K.K. and Ylitalo, K. 1974. Turku sugar studies. I. An intermediate report on the effect of sucrose, fructose and xylitol diets on the caries incidence in man. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 32:383-412.

1973

Paunio, K.U., Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1973. The content of arginine aminopeptidases, hexosamine and uronic acid sugars in gingival exudate as affected by short-term sugar diets. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 31:71-74.

Scheinin, A. and Mkinen, K.K. 1973. Oral effects of the consumption of various sugars. Proceedings of the American Institute of Oral Biology 106-113.

1972

Knuuttila, M.L.E. and Mkinen, K.K. 1972. Effect of maltose on polysaccharide synthesis by a cariogenic streptococcus. Journal of Dental Research 51:674.

Larmas, M., Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1972. Studies on dog saliva. IV. The effect of carbohydrate diet on the activity of some hydrolytic enzymes. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 30:629-641.

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1972. Erilaisten sokeridieettien vaikutus hammasplakin ja suunesteen koostumukseen ja kemiallisiin ominaisuuksiin. (In Finnish). (The effect of different sugar diets on the composition and chemical properties of dental plaque and oral fluid.) Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 68:98-104. Also published in Kuspi (in Finnish), Vol. 10, No. 4, 1971, and in Tandlkartidningen (in Swedish), Vol. 64, No. 6, 1972.

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1972. Sakkaroosin, glukoosin, fruktoosin ja ksylitolin vaikutus hammasplakin koostumukseen ja biokemiallisiin ominaisuuksiin (In Finnish). (The effect of sucrose, glucose, fructose and xylitol on the composition and biochemical properties of dental plaque). Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society 68: 91-97. Also published in Kuspi, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1971.

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1972. The effect of various sugars and sugar mixtures on the activity and formation of enzymes of dental plaque and oral fluid. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 30:259-275.

Mkinen, K.K. 1972. The role of sucrose and other sugars in the development of dental caries. International Dental Journal 22:363-386.

Mkinen, K.K. 1972. Enzyme dynamics of a cariogenic streptococcus: The effect of xylitol and sorbitol. Journal of Dental Research 51:403-408.

Scheinin, A. and Mkinen, K.K. 1972. Effect of sugars and sugar mixtures on dental plaque. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 30:235-257. Top

1971 Paunio, K.U., Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1971. Aminopeptidase B in human gingival exudate as affected by reduced oral hygiene and sugar diet. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 29:583-590.

Mkinen, K.K. and Scheinin, A. 1971. The effect of the consumption of various sugars on the activity of plaque and salivary enzymes. International Dental Journal 21:331-339.

Scheinin, A. and Mkinen, K.K. 1971. The effect of various sugars on the formation and chemical composition of dental plaque. International Dental Journal 21:302-321.